Albtraum für die deutsche Fußball-Nationalelf: In München gewinnt England Die direkte WM-Qualfikation ist in weiter Ferne. Heskey () Deutschland: Kahn/Bayern München (32 Jahre/38 Länderspiele) - Wörns/Borussia Dortmund (29/37) ab der Asamoah/. Das ist der Spielbericht zur Begegnung Deutschland gegen England am WM-Quali Europa. Deutschland GER. Gruppe 9 Uhr. ().
Deutschland - England: Bittere Blamage für DFB-KickerDas ist der Spielbericht zur Begegnung Deutschland gegen England am WM-Quali Europa. Deutschland GER. Gruppe 9 Uhr. (). Nach einer Lehrstunde von historischem Ausmaß muss die deutsche Fußball-Nationalmannschaft mehr denn je um die Teilnahme an der. Spielschema der Begegnung zwischen Deutschland und England () WM-Qualifikation (Europa), /01, Gruppe 9 am Samstag, September
Deutschland England 1 5 World Cup 2010 Teams Video#WorldCupAtHome - Germany v England (South Africa 2010) For law students at German universities, a similar system to the 1 to 5 scale is used that comprises one more grade that is inserted between 2 (gut) and 3 (befriedigend), named vollbefriedigend. This is because the grades 2 (gut) and 1 (sehr gut) are extremely rare, so an additional grade was created below gut to increase differentiation. I cried myself to sleep in when my hero Stuart Pearce missed and my favourite England team of all lost in the semis, I had my heart broken again six years later when another shootout did for Psycho and the boys at Euro 96, and I celebrated with ecstasy as England thumped Germany in Munich nine years ago. I know you don’t expect me to. It was the night England won in Munich and Sportsmail has been talking to some of those involved, including David Beckham. Beckham's joy is summed up by this memory. 'Beating the Germans in. We relive the highlights from England's World Cup qualifier against Germany in Munich from Despite being unbeaten at home in World Cup qualifiers, a hat. WM-QualifikationDeutschland - England ()Olympia-Stadion München, Carsten Jancker, Michael Owen, Steven Gerrard, This directive was unchangedly effective from September 1,Montanablack Wohnung August 25, German manager Rudi Völler's father was reported to Spielstatistik suffered a heart attack watching the game. Germany Lineup 1 Kahn, Oliver R. The culture of these works against students of average academic ability who barely qualify for a Gymnasium place, and Bejeweled Kostenlos Spielen Ohne Anmeldung may then find themselves on the bottom of their class; these same students would have achieved better grades for the same effort if they had attended a non-selective comprehensive school Gesamtschule.Am 1. September traf Deutschland in der Qualifikationsphase der Weltmeisterschaft im Olympiastadion in München auf England. England gewann das Spiel , unterstützt durch einen Hattrick von Michael Owen. Die beiden Mannschaften hatten. Spielschema der Begegnung zwischen Deutschland und England () WM-Qualifikation (Europa), /01, Gruppe 9 am Samstag, September Albtraum für die deutsche Fußball-Nationalelf: In München gewinnt England Die direkte WM-Qualfikation ist in weiter Ferne. Gesamtstatistik. 36 Spiele. (25 Testspiele, 2 EM-Quali, 2 WMQ-Europa, 5 WM, 2 EM). Deutschland 7. England Tore.
In the last match at Wembley before it was closed for redevelopment in October , Germany won 1—0, causing England's manager Kevin Keegan to resign.
Germany were the clear group leaders in the qualifying tournament before the game. With only the group winners advancing directly to the World Cup , the qualifying group table was:.
A German victory would have confirmed their qualification and seen England competing with Greece and Finland for a place in the play-offs.
A draw would have resulted in Germany requiring just another draw from their final game, and England requiring two victories, a German loss and an improvement in their goal difference.
Germany had lost just one of their previous sixty qualification games, in qualification for the World Cup , and had been unbeaten at the Munich Olympic stadium since Indeed, the German Football Association were so confident that Germany would finish at the top of the qualifying table that they had arranged friendlies on the dates of the play-offs.
England named four strikers in their squad, with Robbie Fowler and Andy Cole having started the recent friendly with the Netherlands. The match was an evening game, and began nervously, with both teams attempting to maintain possession.
However, after just six minutes, Germany scored when Oliver Neuville headed down a lofted pass into England's penalty area, and Carsten Jancker tapped the ball past the England goalkeeper David Seaman.
The lead did not last long, and after Michael Owen was fouled outside the German penalty area in the 12th minute, England were given a free kick.
England's captain David Beckham took the kick, which neither the attacking nor defending players managed to touch.
However, Gary Neville headed the ball back into the penalty area, where Nick Barmby headed it down to Owen, who volleyed the ball past Oliver Kahn.
Both teams then had chances during the rest of the first half, notably Sebastian Deisler for Germany; Seaman and Kahn both made some good saves.
Just before the half-time, England won another free kick on the edge of the German penalty area, which was again taken by Beckham. Though he failed to beat the German wall, he crossed the ball back into the penalty area.
Rio Ferdinand headed it back to Steven Gerrard , who shot the ball into the bottom-left corner of the goal from 25 yards out, putting England 2—1 up.
Three minutes after the kick-off, a cross from Beckham found Emile Heskey , who headed the ball down to Owen, who was unmarked. Owen hit the ball into right-hand corner of the net.
Kahn managed to get a hand to the ball, but was unable to stop England claiming a 3—1 lead. Although Germany were able to create further chances, it was England who struck again in the 65th minute.
Gerrard's successful tackle gave him possession, and he played a through ball to Owen, who sprinted into the box and fired the ball over Kahn's head to give England a 4—1 lead.
England began to defend their heavy lead. However, in the 73rd minute, they extended it further following a counter-attack.
Ferdinand won the ball in defence and gave it to Paul Scholes , who progressed up the pitch through a one-two passing move with Beckham.
Scholes passed the ball to Heskey, who ran past the German defender Marko Rehmer and hit the ball low past Kahn to make it 5—1. The final twenty minutes were quiet, with Germany beaten and England not needing to create any more chances.
Some German fans left the game early in disgust, whilst the English fans celebrated their biggest victory since a 6—0 win over Luxembourg in It was England's biggest away win since , when they had beaten San Marino 7—1.
It was the first time that Germany had conceded five goals or more since West Germany's 6—3 defeat by France in , and only the third time in their history that they had lost by four goals or more.
Germany went on to lose 5—1 again, against Romania , in The game provided a boost for the England squad's morale, and greatly increased the popularity of their manager, Sven-Göran Eriksson.
German manager Rudi Völler's father was reported to have suffered a heart attack watching the game. England beat Albania 2 — 0 in their next match, four days later.
Neither team managed to win their final group game, with a last minute Beckham free kick earning England a 2—2 draw with Greece.
This period of Christianity was influenced by ancient Celtic culture in its sensibilities, polity, practices and theology.
Local "congregations" were centred in the monastic community and monastic leaders were more like chieftains, as peers, rather than in the more hierarchical system of the Roman-dominated church.
Roman military withdrawals left Britain open to invasion by pagan, seafaring warriors from north-western continental Europe, chiefly the Saxons, Angles , Jutes and Frisians who had long raided the coasts of the Roman province.
These groups then began to settle in increasing numbers over the course of the fifth and sixth centuries, initially in the eastern part of the country.
Contemporary texts describing this period are extremely scarce, giving rise to its description as a Dark Age. The nature and progression of the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain is consequently subject to considerable disagreement; the emerging consensus is that it occurred on a large scale in the south and east but was less substantial to the north and west, where Celtic languages continued to be spoken even in areas under Anglo-Saxon control.
During the settlement period the lands ruled by the incomers seem to have been fragmented into numerous tribal territories, but by the 7th century, when substantial evidence of the situation again becomes available, these had coalesced into roughly a dozen kingdoms including Northumbria , Mercia , Wessex , East Anglia , Essex , Kent and Sussex.
Over the following centuries, this process of political consolidation continued. Later in that century escalating attacks by the Danes culminated in the conquest of the north and east of England, overthrowing the kingdoms of Northumbria, Mercia and East Anglia.
Wessex under Alfred the Great was left as the only surviving English kingdom, and under his successors, it steadily expanded at the expense of the kingdoms of the Danelaw.
A fresh wave of Scandinavian attacks from the late 10th century ended with the conquest of this united kingdom by Sweyn Forkbeard in and again by his son Cnut in , turning it into the centre of a short-lived North Sea Empire that also included Denmark and Norway.
However, the native royal dynasty was restored with the accession of Edward the Confessor in A dispute over the succession to Edward led to the Norman conquest of England in , accomplished by an army led by Duke William of Normandy.
Catholic monasticism flourished, providing philosophers, and the universities of Oxford and Cambridge were founded with royal patronage. The Principality of Wales became a Plantagenet fief during the 13th century  and the Lordship of Ireland was given to the English monarchy by the Pope.
During the 14th century, the Plantagenets and the House of Valois both claimed to be legitimate claimants to the House of Capet and with it France; the two powers clashed in the Hundred Years' War.
During the Tudor period , the Renaissance reached England through Italian courtiers, who reintroduced artistic, educational and scholarly debate from classical antiquity.
Henry VIII broke from communion with the Catholic Church, over issues relating to his divorce, under the Acts of Supremacy in which proclaimed the monarch head of the Church of England.
In contrast with much of European Protestantism, the roots of the split were more political than theological. There were internal religious conflicts during the reigns of Henry's daughters, Mary I and Elizabeth I.
The former took the country back to Catholicism while the latter broke from it again, forcefully asserting the supremacy of Anglicanism.
Competing with Spain , the first English colony in the Americas was founded in by explorer Walter Raleigh in Virginia and named Roanoke.
The Roanoke colony failed and is known as the lost colony after it was found abandoned on the return of the late-arriving supply ship. During the Elizabethan period , England was at war with Spain.
An armada sailed from Spain in as part of a wider plan to invade England and re-establish a Catholic monarchy. The plan was thwarted by bad coordination, stormy weather and successful harrying attacks by an English fleet under Lord Howard of Effingham.
This failure did not end the threat: Spain launched two further armadas, in and , but both were driven back by storms. The political structure of the island changed in , when the King of Scots , James VI , a kingdom which had been a long-time rival to English interests, inherited the throne of England as James I , thereby creating a personal union.
It was the standard version of the Bible read by most Protestant Christians for four hundred years until modern revisions were produced in the 20th century.
Based on conflicting political, religious and social positions, the English Civil War was fought between the supporters of Parliament and those of King Charles I , known colloquially as Roundheads and Cavaliers respectively.
This was an interwoven part of the wider multifaceted Wars of the Three Kingdoms , involving Scotland and Ireland.
The Parliamentarians were victorious, Charles I was executed and the kingdom replaced by the Commonwealth.
Leader of the Parliament forces, Oliver Cromwell declared himself Lord Protector in ; a period of personal rule followed. After the Glorious Revolution of , it was constitutionally established that King and Parliament should rule together, though Parliament would have the real power.
This was established with the Bill of Rights in Among the statutes set down were that the law could only be made by Parliament and could not be suspended by the King, also that the King could not impose taxes or raise an army without the prior approval of Parliament.
In the Great Fire of London gutted the City of London but it was rebuilt shortly afterwards  with many significant buildings designed by Sir Christopher Wren.
In Parliament two factions had emerged — the Tories and Whigs. Some English people, especially in the north, were Jacobites and continued to support James and his sons.
After the parliaments of England and Scotland agreed,  the two countries joined in political union , to create the Kingdom of Great Britain in Under the newly formed Kingdom of Great Britain, output from the Royal Society and other English initiatives combined with the Scottish Enlightenment to create innovations in science and engineering, while the enormous growth in British overseas trade protected by the Royal Navy paved the way for the establishment of the British Empire.
Domestically it drove the Industrial Revolution , a period of profound change in the socioeconomic and cultural conditions of England, resulting in industrialised agriculture, manufacture, engineering and mining, as well as new and pioneering road, rail and water networks to facilitate their expansion and development.
During the Industrial Revolution, many workers moved from England's countryside to new and expanding urban industrial areas to work in factories, for instance at Birmingham and Manchester , dubbed "Workshop of the World" and "Warehouse City" respectively.
During the Napoleonic Wars , Napoleon planned to invade from the south-east. However this failed to manifest and the Napoleonic forces were defeated by the British at sea by Lord Nelson and on land by the Duke of Wellington.
The Napoleonic Wars fostered a concept of Britishness and a united national British people , shared with the Scots and Welsh.
London became the largest and most populous metropolitan area in the world during the Victorian era , and trade within the British Empire — as well as the standing of the British military and navy — was prestigious.
Developments in warfare technology saw many cities damaged by air-raids during the Blitz. Following the war, the British Empire experienced rapid decolonisation , and there was a speeding up of technological innovations; automobiles became the primary means of transport and Frank Whittle 's development of the jet engine led to wider air travel.
The UK's NHS provided publicly funded health care to all UK permanent residents free at the point of need, being paid for from general taxation.
Combined, these changes prompted the reform of local government in England in the midth century. Since the 20th century there has been significant population movement to England, mostly from other parts of the British Isles , but also from the Commonwealth , particularly the Indian subcontinent.
Since the late 20th century the administration of the United Kingdom has moved towards devolved governance in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.
As part of the United Kingdom, the basic political system in England is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary system.
Today England is governed directly by the Parliament of the United Kingdom , although other countries of the United Kingdom have devolved governments.
Since devolution , in which other countries of the United Kingdom — Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland — each have their own devolved parliament or assemblies for local issues, there has been debate about how to counterbalance this in England.
Originally it was planned that various regions of England would be devolved, but following the proposal's rejection by the North East in a referendum , this has not been carried out.
One major issue is the West Lothian question , in which MPs from Scotland and Wales are able to vote on legislation affecting only England, while English MPs have no equivalent right to legislate on devolved matters.
The English law legal system, developed over the centuries, is the basis of common law  legal systems used in most Commonwealth countries  and the United States except Louisiana.
Despite now being part of the United Kingdom, the legal system of the Courts of England and Wales continued, under the Treaty of Union , as a separate legal system from the one used in Scotland.
The general essence of English law is that it is made by judges sitting in courts, applying their common sense and knowledge of legal precedent — stare decisis — to the facts before them.
It was created in after constitutional changes, taking over the judicial functions of the House of Lords. The subdivisions of England consist of up to four levels of subnational division controlled through a variety of types of administrative entities created for the purposes of local government.
These were created in as Government Offices , used by the UK government to deliver a wide range of policies and programmes regionally, but there are no elected bodies at this level, except in London, and in the regional government offices were abolished.
After devolution began to take place in other parts of the United Kingdom it was planned that referendums for the regions of England would take place for their own elected regional assemblies as a counterweight.
London accepted in the London Assembly was created two years later. However, when the proposal was rejected by the North East England devolution referendum in the North East, further referendums were cancelled.
Below the regional level, all of England is divided into 48 ceremonial counties. There are six metropolitan counties based on the most heavily urbanised areas, which do not have county councils.
Elsewhere, 27 non-metropolitan "shire" counties have a county council and are divided into districts, each with a district council.
They are typically, though not always, found in more rural areas. The remaining non-metropolitan counties are of a single district and usually correspond to large towns or sparsely populated counties; they are known as unitary authorities.
Greater London has a different system for local government, with 32 London boroughs , plus the City of London covering a small area at the core governed by the City of London Corporation.
Geographically England includes the central and southern two-thirds of the island of Great Britain, plus such offshore islands as the Isle of Wight and the Isles of Scilly.
It is bordered by two other countries of the United Kingdom: to the north by Scotland and to the west by Wales. England is closer than any other part of mainland Britain to the European continent.
Most of England's landscape consists of low hills and plains, with upland and mountainous terrain in the north and west of the country. The northern uplands include the Pennines , a chain of uplands dividing east and west, the Lake District mountains in Cumbria, and the Cheviot Hills , straddling the border between England and Scotland.
The approximate dividing line between terrain types is often indicated by the Tees-Exe line. There are karst landscapes in calcite areas such as parts of Yorkshire and Derbyshire.
The Pennine landscape is high moorland in upland areas, indented by fertile valleys of the region's rivers. They contain two national parks , the Yorkshire Dales and the Peak District.
In the West Country , Dartmoor and Exmoor of the Southwest Peninsula include upland moorland supported by granite, and enjoy a mild climate ; both are national parks.
The English Lowlands are in the central and southern regions of the country, consisting of green rolling hills, including the Cotswold Hills , Chiltern Hills , North and South Downs ; where they meet the sea they form white rock exposures such as the cliffs of Dover.
The coldest months are January and February, the latter particularly on the English coast , while July is normally the warmest month.
Months with mild to warm weather are May, June, September and October. Important influences on the climate of England are its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean , its northern latitude and the warming of the sea by the Gulf Stream.
The fauna of England is similar to that of other areas in the British Isles with a wide range of vertebrate and invertebrate life in a diverse range of habitats.
National nature reserves in England are designated by Natural England as key places for wildlife and natural features in England. They were established to protect the most significant areas of habitat and of geological formations.
NNRs are managed on behalf of the nation, many by Natural England themselves, but also by non-governmental organisations, including the members of The Wildlife Trusts partnership, the National Trust , and the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds.
There are NNRs in England covering square kilometres square miles. Often they contain rare species or nationally important species of plants and animals.
England has a temperate oceanic climate in most areas, lacking extremes of cold or heat, but does have a few small areas of subarctic and warmer areas in the South West.
Towards the North of England the climate becomes colder and most of England's mountains and high hills are located here and have a major impact on the climate and thus the local fauna of the areas.
Deciduous woodlands are common across all of England and provide a great habitat for much of England's wildlife, but these give way in northern and upland areas of England to coniferous forests mainly plantations which also benefit certain forms of wildlife.
The fauna of England has to cope with varying temperatures and conditions, although not extreme they do pose potential challenges and adaptational measures.
English fauna has however had to cope with industrialisation, human population densities amongst the highest in Europe and intensive farming , but as England is a developed nation, wildlife and the countryside have entered the English mindset more and the country is very conscientious about preserving its wildlife, environment and countryside.
Grey squirrels introduced from eastern America have forced the decline of the native red squirrel due to competition. Red squirrels are now confined to upland and coniferous-forested areas of England, mainly in the north, south west and Isle of Wight.
England's climate is very suitable for lagomorphs and the country has rabbits and brown hares which were introduced in Roman times.
The Greater London Built-up Area is by far the largest urban area in England  and one of the busiest cities in the world. It is considered a global city and has a population larger than other countries in the United Kingdom besides England itself.
While many cities in England are quite large, such as Birmingham , Sheffield , Manchester, Liverpool , Leeds , Newcastle , Bradford , Nottingham , population size is not a prerequisite for city status.
England is a leader in the chemical  and pharmaceutical sectors and in key technical industries, particularly aerospace , the arms industry , and the manufacturing side of the software industry.
Originally established as private banker to the government of England, since it has been a state-owned institution. The government has devolved responsibility to the bank's Monetary Policy Committee for managing the monetary policy of the country and setting interest rates.
England is highly industrialised, but since the s there has been a decline in traditional heavy and manufacturing industries, and an increasing emphasis on a more service industry oriented economy.
The export part of the economy is dominated by pharmaceuticals , cars although many English marques are now foreign-owned, such as Land Rover , Lotus , Jaguar and Bentley , crude oil and petroleum from the English parts of North Sea oil along with Wytch Farm , aircraft engines and alcoholic beverages.
It is also a principal subcontractor on the F35 Joint Strike Fighter — the world's largest single defence project — for which it designs and manufactures a range of components including the aft fuselage, vertical and horizontal tail and wing tips and fuel system.
It also manufactures the Hawk , the world's most successful jet training aircraft. Rolls-Royce PLC is the world's second-largest aero-engine manufacturer.
Its engines power more than 30 types of commercial aircraft, and it has more 30, engines currently in service across both the civil and defence sectors.
With a workforce of over 12, people, Derby has the largest concentration of Rolls-Royce employees in the UK.
Rolls-Royce also produces low-emission power systems for ships; makes critical equipment and safety systems for the nuclear industry and powers offshore platforms and major pipelines for the oil and gas industry.
The company builds the buses — the underlying structure onto which the payload and propulsion systems are built — for most of the European Space Agency 's spacecraft, as well as commercial satellites.
The world leader in compact satellite systems, Surrey Satellite Technology , is also part of Astrium. England is one of the world's leading fishing nations.
Its fleets bring home fish of every kind, ranging from sole to herring. Some experts claim that the earliest concept of a metric system was invented by John Wilkins , the first secretary of the Royal Society , in As the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution , England was home to many significant inventors during the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
Famous English engineers include Isambard Kingdom Brunel , best known for the creation of the Great Western Railway , a series of famous steamships , and numerous important bridges, hence revolutionising public transport and modern-day engineering.
With his role in the marketing and manufacturing of the steam engine, and invention of modern coinage, Matthew Boulton business partner of James Watt is regarded as one of the most influential entrepreneurs in history.
Inventions and discoveries of the English include: the jet engine , the first industrial spinning machine , the first computer and the first modern computer , the World Wide Web along with HTML , the first successful human blood transfusion , the motorised vacuum cleaner ,  the lawn mower , the seat belt , the hovercraft , the electric motor , steam engines , and theories such as the Darwinian theory of evolution and atomic theory.
Newton developed the ideas of universal gravitation , Newtonian mechanics , and calculus , and Robert Hooke his eponymously named law of elasticity.
Other inventions include the iron plate railway, the thermosiphon , tarmac , the rubber band , the mousetrap , "cat's eye" road marker , joint development of the light bulb , steam locomotives , the modern seed drill and many modern techniques and technologies used in precision engineering.
The Department for Transport is the government body responsible for overseeing transport in England. England has a dense and modern transportation infrastructure.
There are many motorways in England , and many other trunk roads, such as the A1 Great North Road , which runs through eastern England from London to Newcastle  much of this section is motorway and onward to the Scottish border.
The red double-decker buses in London have become a symbol of England. National Cycle Route offers cycling routes nationally.
Rail transport in England is the oldest in the world: passenger railways originated in England in There are plans to reopen lines such as the Varsity Line between Oxford and Cambridge.
These lines are mostly standard gauge single , double or quadruple track though there are also a few narrow gauge lines. There is rail transport access to France and Belgium through an undersea rail link, the Channel Tunnel , which was completed in England has extensive domestic and international aviation links.
The largest airport is Heathrow , which is the world's busiest airport measured by number of international passengers. By sea there is ferry transport, both local and international, including from Liverpool to Ireland and the Isle of Man, and Hull to the Netherlands and Belgium.
The River Thames is the major waterway in England, with imports and exports focused at the Port of Tilbury in the Thames Estuary , one of the United Kingdom's three major ports.
Energy use in the United Kingdom stood at 2, TWh Successive UK governments have outlined numerous commitments to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.
Notably, the UK is one of the best sites in Europe for wind energy , and wind power production is its fastest growing supply.
Government commitments to reduce emissions are occurring against a backdrop of economic crisis across Europe. UK government energy policy aims to play a key role in limiting greenhouse gas emissions , whilst meeting energy demand.
Shifting availabilities of resources and development of technologies also change the country's energy mix through changes in costs.
In , the United Kingdom was ranked 6th in the World on the Environmental Performance Index ,  which measures how well a country carries through environmental policy.
English Heritage is a governmental body with a broad remit of managing the historic sites, artefacts and environments of England.
It is currently sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport. The northernmost point of the Roman Empire, Hadrian's Wall , is the largest Roman artefact anywhere: it runs for a total of 73 miles in northern England.
London is one of the world's most visited cities, regularly taking the top five most visited cities in Europe. It is largely considered a global centre of the arts and culture.
Entry to most state-supported museums and galleries is free unlike in other countries. National Health England NHS England is the publicly funded healthcare system responsible for providing the majority of healthcare in the country.
It was based on the findings of the Beveridge Report , prepared by economist and social reformer William Beveridge.
When purchasing drugs, the NHS has significant market power that, based on its own assessment of the fair value of the drugs, influences the global price, typically keeping prices lower.
The average life expectancy of people in England is The English people are a British people. In , when the Domesday Book was compiled, England had a population of two million.
England contains one indigenous national minority, the Cornish people , recognised by the UK government under the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities in By the 15th century, English was back in fashion among all classes, though much changed; the Middle English form showed many signs of French influence, both in vocabulary and spelling.
During the English Renaissance , many words were coined from Latin and Greek origins. Thanks in large part to the British Empire , the English language is the world's unofficial lingua franca.
English language learning and teaching is an important economic activity , and includes language schooling , tourism spending, and publishing.
There is no legislation mandating an official language for England,  but English is the only language used for official business. Despite the country's relatively small size, there are many distinct regional accents , and individuals with particularly strong accents may not be easily understood everywhere in the country.
As well as English, England has two other indigenous languages , Cornish and Welsh. Cornish died out as a community language in the 18th century but is being revived,   and is now protected under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.
When the modern border between Wales and England was established by the Laws in Wales Acts and , many Welsh-speaking communities found themselves on the English side of the border.
Welsh was spoken in Archenfield in Herefordshire into the nineteenth century,  and by natives of parts of western Shropshire until the middle of the twentieth century if not later.
State schools teach students a second language or third language from the ages of seven, usually French, German, Spanish, Latin, Greek.
However, following the census data released by the Office for National Statistics , figures now show that Polish is the main language spoken in England after English.
In the census, The church regards itself as both Catholic and Protestant. It forms part of the Anglican Communion with the Archbishop of Canterbury acting as its symbolic worldwide head.
Since its reintroduction after the Catholic Emancipation , the Church has organised ecclesiastically on an England and Wales basis where there are 4.
A form of Protestantism known as Methodism is the third largest Christian practice and grew out of Anglicanism through John Wesley. The patron saint of England is Saint George ; his symbolic cross is included in the flag of England, as well as in the Union Flag as part of a combination.
There are non-Christian religions practised. Jews have a history of a small minority on the island since Especially since the s, religions from the former British colonies have grown in numbers, due to immigration.
A small minority of the population practise ancient Pagan religions. Neopaganism in the United Kingdom is primarily represented by Wicca and Witchcraft religions , Druidry , and Heathenry.
According to the UK Census , there are roughly 53, people who identify as Pagan in England, [nb 5] and 3, in Wales , [nb 5] including 11, Wiccans in England and in Wales.
These figures are slightly lower than the combined figures for England and Wales as Wales has a higher level of irreligion than England.
The Department for Education is the government department responsible for issues affecting people in England up to the age of 19, including education.
Children who are between the ages of 3 and 5 attend nursery or an Early Years Foundation Stage reception unit within a primary school.
Children between the ages of 5 and 11 attend primary school, and secondary school is attended by those aged between 11 and Schools may choose to permit trousers for girls or religious dress.
Although most English secondary schools are comprehensive , there are selective intake grammar schools to which entrance is subject to passing the eleven-plus exam.
Around 7. After finishing compulsory education, students take GCSE examinations. Students may then opt to continue into further education for two years.
Further education colleges particularly sixth form colleges often form part of a secondary school site.
A-level examinations are sat by a large number of further education students, and often form the basis of an application to university. Some English students study an apprenticeship to learn skilled trades and pursue T-levels to progress towards skilled employment, further study or a higher apprenticeship.
Higher education students normally attend university from age 18 onwards, where they study for an academic degree. The Department for Business, Innovation and Skills is the government department responsible for higher education in England.
Students are then able to work towards a postgraduate degree, which usually takes one year, or towards a doctorate, which takes three or more years.
Many ancient standing stone monuments were erected during the prehistoric period; amongst the best known are Stonehenge , Devil's Arrows , Rudston Monolith and Castlerigg.
Perhaps the best-known example is Hadrian's Wall stretching right across northern England. Early Medieval architecture's secular buildings were simple constructions mainly using timber with thatch for roofing.
Ecclesiastical architecture ranged from a synthesis of Hiberno — Saxon monasticism ,   to Early Christian basilica and architecture characterised by pilaster-strips, blank arcading, baluster shafts and triangular headed openings.
After the Norman conquest in various Castles in England were created so law lords could uphold their authority and in the north to protect from invasion.
Throughout the Plantagenet era, an English Gothic architecture flourished, with prime examples including the medieval cathedrals such as Canterbury Cathedral , Westminster Abbey and York Minster.
Medieval architecture was completed with the 16th-century Tudor style ; the four-centred arch, now known as the Tudor arch , was a defining feature as were wattle and daub houses domestically.
In the aftermath of the Renaissance a form of architecture echoing classical antiquity synthesised with Christianity appeared, the English Baroque style of architect Christopher Wren being particularly championed.
Georgian architecture followed in a more refined style, evoking a simple Palladian form; the Royal Crescent at Bath is one of the best examples of this.
With the emergence of romanticism during Victorian period, a Gothic Revival was launched. In addition to this, around the same time the Industrial Revolution paved the way for buildings such as The Crystal Palace.
Since the s various modernist forms have appeared whose reception is often controversial, though traditionalist resistance movements continue with support in influential places.
Landscape gardening as developed by Capability Brown set an international trend for the English garden. Gardening, visiting gardens, and a love for gardens are regarded as typically English pursuits.
The English garden presented an idealized view of nature. At large country houses, the English garden usually included lakes, sweeps of gently rolling lawns set against groves of trees, and recreations of classical temples, Gothic ruins , bridges, and other picturesque architecture, designed to recreate an idyllic pastoral landscape.
By the end of the 18th century the English garden was being imitated by the French landscape garden , and as far away as St. Petersburg, Russia, in Pavlovsk , the gardens of the future Emperor Paul.
It also had a major influence on the form of the public parks and gardens which appeared around the world in the 19th century.
Today, some large-scale English gardens and English landscape gardens are popular visitor cultural attractions managed by both English Heritage and the National Trust.
The Chelsea Flower Show is held every year and is said to be the largest gardening show in the world. English folklore developed over many centuries.
Some of the characters and stories are present across England, but most belong to specific regions. Common folkloric beings include pixies , giants , elves , bogeymen , trolls , goblins and dwarves.
While many legends and folk-customs are thought to be ancient, such as the tales featuring Offa of Angel and Wayland the Smith ,  others date from after the Norman invasion.
The legends featuring Robin Hood and his Merry Men of Sherwood , and their battles with the Sheriff of Nottingham , are among the best-known of these.
During the High Middle Ages tales originating from Brythonic traditions entered English folklore and developed into the Arthurian myth.
Many of the tales and pseudo-histories make up part of the wider Matter of Britain , a collection of shared British folklore. Some folk figures are based on semi or actual historical people whose story has been passed down centuries; Lady Godiva for instance was said to have ridden naked on horseback through Coventry , Hereward the Wake was a heroic English figure resisting the Norman invasion, Herne the Hunter is an equestrian ghost associated with Windsor Forest and Great Park and Mother Shipton is the archetypal witch.
The chivalrous bandit, such as Dick Turpin , is a recurring character, while Blackbeard is the archetypal pirate.
There are various national and regional folk activities, participated in to this day, such as Morris dancing , Maypole dancing , Rapper sword in the North East, Long Sword dance in Yorkshire, Mummers Plays , bottle-kicking in Leicestershire, and cheese-rolling at Cooper's Hill.
Since the early modern period the food of England has historically been characterised by its simplicity of approach and a reliance on the high quality of natural produce.
The cuisine of England has, however, recently undergone a revival, which has been recognised by food critics with some good ratings in Restaurant ' s best restaurant in the world charts.
Traditional examples of English food include the Sunday roast , featuring a roasted joint usually beef, lamb , chicken or pork served with assorted vegetables, Yorkshire pudding and gravy.
Sausages are commonly eaten, either as bangers and mash or toad in the hole. Lancashire hotpot is a well-known stew originating in the northwest.
Many Anglo-Indian hybrid dishes, curries , have been created, such as chicken tikka masala and balti. Traditional English dessert dishes include apple pie or other fruit pies; spotted dick — all generally served with custard ; and, more recently, sticky toffee pudding.
Sweet pastries include scones either plain or containing dried fruit served with jam or cream, dried fruit loaves, Eccles cakes and mince pies as well as a wide range of sweet or spiced biscuits.
Common non-alcoholic drinks include tea, the popularity of which was increased by Catherine of Braganza ,  and coffee; frequently consumed alcoholic drinks include wine, ciders and English beers , such as bitter , mild , stout and brown ale.
The earliest known examples are the prehistoric rock and cave art pieces, most prominent in North Yorkshire , Northumberland and Cumbria , but also feature further south, for example at Creswell Crags.
There are numerous surviving artefacts, such as those at Lullingstone and Aldborough. The Tudor era saw prominent artists as part of their court, portrait painting which would remain an enduring part of English art, was boosted by German Hans Holbein , natives such as Nicholas Hilliard built on this.
In the 19th century, Constable and Turner were major landscape artists. Early authors such as Bede and Alcuin wrote in Latin. Marvell was the best-known poet of the Commonwealth ,  while John Milton authored Paradise Lost during the Restoration.
William Shakespeare. More radical elements were later countered by Edmund Burke who is regarded as the founder of conservatism.
In response to the Industrial Revolution , agrarian writers sought a way between liberty and tradition; William Cobbett , G.
Chesterton and Hilaire Belloc were main exponents, while the founder of guild socialism , Arthur Penty , and cooperative movement advocate G.
Cole are somewhat related. Wells and Lewis Carroll. Lawrence , Virginia Woolf , C. Tolkien , and J. The traditional folk music of England is centuries old and has contributed to several genres prominently; mostly sea shanties , jigs , hornpipes and dance music.
It has its own distinct variations and regional peculiarities. German-born George Frideric Handel spent most of his composing life in London and became a national icon in Britain, creating some of the most well-known works of classical music, especially his English oratorios, The Messiah , Solomon , Water Music , and Music for the Royal Fireworks.
In the field of popular music , many English bands and solo artists have been cited as the most influential and best-selling musicians of all time.
Large outdoor music festivals in the summer and autumn are popular, such as Glastonbury , V Festival , and the Reading and Leeds Festivals. It is the largest open-air Asian festival in Europe.
After the Notting Hill Carnival , it is the second-largest street festival in the United Kingdom attracting over 80, visitors from across the country.
Hitchcock and Lean are among the most critically acclaimed filmmakers. Major film studios in England include Pinewood , Elstree and Shepperton.
Some of the most commercially successful films of all time have been produced in England, including two of the highest-grossing film franchises Harry Potter and James Bond.
There are many museums in England, but perhaps the most notable is London's British Museum. Its collection of more than seven million objects  is one of the largest and most comprehensive in the world,  sourced from every continent, illustrating and documenting the story of human culture from its beginning to the present.
England has a strong sporting heritage, and during the 19th century codified many sports that are now played around the world. Sports originating in England include association football ,  cricket , rugby union , rugby league , tennis , boxing , badminton, squash ,  rounders ,  hockey , snooker , billiards , darts , table tennis, bowls , netball , thoroughbred horseracing, greyhound racing and fox hunting.
It has helped the development of golf , sailing and Formula One. Football is the most popular of these sports.
The England national football team , whose home venue is Wembley Stadium , played Scotland in the first ever international football match in In the modern day, the Premier League is the world's most-watched football league,  most lucrative,  and amongst the elite.
As is the case throughout the UK, football in England is notable for the rivalries between clubs and the passion of the supporters, which includes a tradition of football chants.
Cricket is generally thought to have been developed in the early medieval period among the farming and metalworking communities of the Weald.
One of the game's top rivalries is The Ashes series between England and Australia , contested since The climax of the Ashes was viewed by 7.
William Penny Brookes was prominent in organising the format for the modern Olympic Games. England competes in the Commonwealth Games , held every four years.
Sport England is the governing body responsible for distributing funds and providing strategic guidance for sporting activity in England.
Rugby union originated in Rugby School , Warwickshire in the early 19th century. England was one of the host nations of the competition in the Rugby World Cup and also hosted the Rugby World Cup.
Rugby league was born in Huddersfield in Since , the England national rugby league team has been a full test nation in lieu of the Great Britain national rugby league team , which won three World Cups but is now retired.
Rugby League is most popular among towns in the northern English counties of Lancashire , Yorkshire and Cumbria. Some of the most successful clubs include Wigan Warriors , Hull F.
Golf has been prominent in England; due in part to its cultural and geographical ties to Scotland, the home of Golf. The world's oldest golf tournament, and golf's first major is The Open Championship , played both in England and Scotland.
The biennial golf competition, the Ryder Cup , is named after English businessman Samuel Ryder who sponsored the event and donated the trophy.
Tennis was created in Birmingham in the late 19th century, and the Wimbledon Championships is the oldest tennis tournament in the world, and widely considered the most prestigious.
Fred Perry was the last Englishman to win Wimbledon in He was the first player to win all four Grand Slam singles titles  and helped lead the Great Britain team to four Davis Cup wins.
We can, and I believe will, win this. England expects. Bodes well, doesn't it? Just over two hours until kick-off You have to think of all the good things that can happen to you.
From anon: "I'm at Glastonbury with my german friend Dina. About to watch the game shortly, Dina in her germany shirt and me in my england shirt.
It's been a great weekend but only one of us can be happy after this game! At least I know the crowd will be with me! We will be happy with whoever wins but so hope for a good game with both teams playing their very best and positively and that we have a result at full time!
Wish I had the same feeling! I think we've already done fantastically well so let's see how we go. Right, that's all from me for now - I'll be back later on for Argentina v Mexico though.
Over to Jonathan Stevenson to take you through the rest of the build-up to England v Germany and the all-important match itself.
Thought not. Hey there. The two words that best sum me up today? Proud and emotional. And so it begins. Refresh your page and let's get going.
Can Mesut Ozil maintain his sparking form - and can Wayne Rooney rediscover his? The clock is ticking to the time when we will find out. As the Stuart Pearce mock-up poster says, your country needs you.
C Join up and join in on Geoff in Middlesbrough: "I have got a really good feeling about today. The Germany defence is weak as Ghana proved when they opened them up on several occasions.
As long a we keep Ozil does anyone else think he looks like Beaker from the muppets? Some of the England players are first out on to the Free State Stadium pitch in Bloemfontein to have a look around.
The cheeky putter escaped a fine from the tournament director. For England, this day has been a very long time in coming. It is 44 years since they beat West Germany in the World Cup and since then it has not been much fun playing their old rivals.
Fifa president Sepp Blatter: "Leaving for Bloemfontein for the next chapter in a match which has created World Cup history - 66, 70, 90 and On Twitter: "I've filmed video inside stadium.
Lots of English flags flying. But I would also realise that the first goal will be so, so important. I know there is loads of history between England and Germany, but that will not affect the players on Sunday.
Half the squad will not even remember Just look at the players, they have players who can really make a difference. They will give us a big fight on Sunday.
From wildsnooker: "Ozil is being over hyped by non-English fans. I don't fear him at all. England have this won.
We are better, and I am adament we will get a min result. Our friends from Infostrada Sports have come up with a gem once more. Here it is: England goalkeeper David James has conceded five penalty goals in regulation for England, and two have been missed.
He has not physically saved any of the seven in total. He also faced seven penalties in the Euro shootout v Portugal - six were scored and one put over the bar by Rui Costa.
So in total, he has faced 14 penalties in an England shirt - 11 scored, three off target and none actually saved. Referee: Jorge Larrionda Uruguay.
So, England are unchanged for the first time in Fabio Capello's game reign. Lagos is expectant. The not-so-secret predo of Nathan Stevenson: aged three and three-quarters Germany England.
In 10, 20, 30, 40 years from now, people will talk about the time Germany and England met in the World Cup in Bloemfontein.
Jez in Fulham: "Just pulled out my commemorative England shirt - was it really nine years ago we thrashed them? Fingers crossed. It's so much easier playing in these games than watching them, it'll be horrible when it starts.
If Wayne Rooney and Steven Gerrard can get in and around his feet, who knows? If Rooney plays like we know he can, England are in business.
When you are growing up, it is the stage you want to be playing at. There could be a big moment in the game that can define any player's career.
But you look forward to it. It is a fantastic game to play in. Everyone is excited. But, for us, matches of the past do not play such a major role.
We know the English players have good qualities, we know perfectly well that they play the opposite to kick and rush. From jonnysteamboat: "On paper England have a much better team, the problem lies mentally.
This is where England can fail, but the team seem to have avoided the England-Germany hype and seem to be focused on winning a football match.
England have some great experience and a huge amount of desire. Rooney will shine today. I cried myself to sleep in when my hero Stuart Pearce missed and my favourite England team of all lost in the semis, I had my heart broken again six years later when another shootout did for Psycho and the boys at Euro 96, and I celebrated with ecstasy as England thumped Germany in Munich nine years ago.
Back home, we don't even start watching until the knockout stages. And don't count on us missing a penalty - it only happens once every 28 years.
I guess it's going to be the same old story. Nick at Queen Charlotte Hospital: "My girlfriend has gone into labour!
Thankfully with all the gas and air that she is on I don't think she will notice if I sneak out to the pub to watch the game!
We'd love this game to be further on in the competition, but it's an amazing game to play in and it'll be a tight affair. Let's get it decided in normal time.
From mcrabb " See If his predo is correct, can Nathan do the live commentary for the quarter-final? I wouldn't call him lazy, but he doesn't have the energy and the fight of, say, a Wayne Rooney," said Nürnberger.
From manfrombelmonty: "This is what it's all about. Even though I'm Irish I've got goosebumps all over and my heart is pounding. Games just don't get any bigger.
This just has to be a cracker. On the telly right now, they are talking a lot about penalty shootouts.
I think today is the day when we will see England come and play, there are some outstanding players in this team. Let's not let Mesut Ozil dictate the play and let's hurt them.
Play your part in the drama that is about to unfold. Germany is one of those teams, not more. I respect Germany but I think also Germany respect us.
The players look strong and we did well in training, just like we did before Slovenia. Everything is really good and for this reason I have a lot of confidence in my team.
I feel a bit cold. Great atmosphere, England fans completely outnunbered. Hopefully it will be more subdued here later on!
England's players have talked a good game in the build-up, claiming confidence has been reassembled by the win against Slovenia.
Good sheparding out of play from Gareth Barry down the England right after Lukas Podolski threatened. An early touch for Mesut Ozil, but Matthew Upson went in quickly to close him down.
Sloppy from England. A ball over the top down the right catches Ashley Cole out and Mesut Ozil is through, but the angle is tight and his shot is well saved by the legs of David James.
Both teams look a bit nervy, lots of heavy touches in the early stages. Meanwhile, apparently I used the wrong verse of the Germany national anthem, for which I'd like to apologise.
No offence was intended. England captain Steven Gerrard plays a Hollywood pass out to the right, but it's miles ahead of James Milner. Wayne Rooney is showing signs of being sharper today after eight games without a goal for his country.
Both teams giving it away too easily at the moment. An England attack breaks down and Germany counter with pace as Lukas Podolski leads the charge, but he is selfish and his left-foot shot from 22 yards is blocked - he had better options up alongside him.
Ashley Cole goes in hard and fair on Thomas Mueller and it takes the Germany winger a few moments to get back to his feet.
Cole has shown good aggression early on. I have taken the day off from work tomorrow and the bosses are letting everyone come in later in the morning.
Come on England. It's just waiting to catch fire, this one. There are some nice exchanges of passes without anything stunning happening.
One such decent move for Germany ends with Sami Khedira ballooning a left-foot shot miles over from 25 yards.
Frank Lampard's free-kick thunders into the Germany wall and seconds later Wayne Rooney uncharacteristically gives the ball away.
Klose could have gone down there and Upson would have been sent off, but he bagged his 50th international goal instead.
I don't know what they were doing. Wayne Rooney runs into a little bit of space 30 yards out, but his right-foot shot is wide and wild and the Germans will take that all afternoon.
A furious Fabio Capello is off the bench already, and no wonder. Matthew Upson did not react quickly enough and was then too feeble in his attempts to deal with Miroslav Klose.
Poor, poor goal. That was just a huge punt down the middle of the field by the keeper - what were the two centre-backs doing? Give Klose credit, he didn't give up on the chase but what a terrible goal to give away.
Better from England as they work it down the right and the ball falls for Gareth Barry 30 yards out - he hits a decent left-foot shot, but it's comfortable low down for Manuel Neuer.
From PotentPotables: "I honestly think Rooney should stay up front and wait for service. His constant roaming in midfield has rendered him ineffective.
He just can't do everything by himself. England are having more of the ball, but their shape isn't very good - Wayne Rooney is dropping too deep, and James Milner is wondering over to the left.
They seem to be panicking a little at the moment, but there's no need to, there's plenty of time left in the game. What a save from David James.
Germany attack with gusto and Thomas Mueller plays a pass into the area for Miroslav Klose, but his goalbound right-foot effort is brilliantly blocked by James.
Jermain Defoe heads a Glen Johnson cross against the crossbar, but the Spurs striker is flagged for offside so it wouldn't have counted.
England's defence is an absolute shambles. Germany attack down the right and one clever flick from Miroslav Klose tees up Thomas Mueller.
With England's central defenders nowhere to be seen Mueller plays it over the top to Lukas Podolski and from a tight angle on the left of the six-yard box, he smashes low past David James.
Stunning finish, and England are suitably stunned. James Milner whips in a cross from the England right and from the edge of the six-yard box Frank Lampard's poacher effort is brilliantly kept out by Manuel Meuer's right hand.
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